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    东师战“疫” | 教师教育研究前沿(二)

    时间:2020-03-02 11:17:40


    把握国际动态· 聚焦学术前沿· 助力教师成长


    推荐人:

    李广平,东北师范大学教育学部教授,博士生导师,现任教师教育研究所所长。

    推荐语:

    本文分析了《不让一个孩子掉队》法案实施以来,美国政策话语体系中存在的三种教师原型。不仅可以从中更好理解美国政策体系中对教师职业认知的共性与差异,也可以学习借鉴其研究教师职业公众形象的研究方法。

    推荐文章:

    Policy Images of Teachers: How In?uential Actors Construct Images of Teachers

    Katrina E. Bulkley   Jessica Gottlieb

    Montclair State University   Notre Dame Center for STEM Education

    INTRODUCTIONFor more than a decade, public discourse has suggested a highly polarized debate between educational reformers and traditionalists around educational policy. Educational reformers are identi?ed with policies such as charter schools, test-based accountability, the reform or elimination of teacher tenure, and challenges to university-based educator preparation, while “traditionalists” (in the words of Josh Patashnik of the New Republic, Patashnik, 2008) resist such changes and focus on improving adequacy and equity in school funding, the professionalization of teaching, and the empowerment of educators (see also Mahler, 2011; Strauss, 2012).

    In the ?urry of this debate over educational improvement, few actors are as directly implicated—as both heroes and villains—as public school teachers. Sometimes, teachers are portrayed as working tirelessly and sel?essly on the behalf of children, particularly those who are disadvantaged. Other presentations suggest that teachers are largely bene?ciaries of outsized union power and outdated policies (Goldstein, 2011). However, despite rhetoric that suggests two distinct “camps,” little research examines how those with in?uence in educational policy, especially those individuals and organizations that play a leading role in both the discourse and substance of education reform efforts, view teachers, or how those views shape policy goals.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how in?uential actors think about teachers, the teaching profession, and groups associated with teachers through implicit “policy images,” and how those images are re?ected in policy prescriptions and designs (Cochran-Smith & Fries, 2001; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2006; Jansen, 2001; Schneider & Ingram, 1993). This study also demonstrates how prior research on social constructions in policy can assist in analyzing and explaining policy images, as well as the implications of those images in policy design. These images of teachers and associated groupings such as unions and the overall profession are social constructions in which various traits are assigned to teachers, or subgroups of teachers, and where this assignment of traits is contested (Schneider & Ingram, 1993). The idea of social constructions emphasizes that knowledge does not exist, but rather is developed and af?rmed through ongoing social interactions within social systems (Berger & Luckmann, 1966). Thus, the truth about speci?c constructions of teachers is not a set of facts to be found, but a set of common understandings within a context, and thus subject to the potential for multiple understandings.

    In this study, we expand upon and update Cochran-Smith and Lytle’s (2006) work on the policy images of teachers and teaching explicit or implicit in No Child Left Behind [NCLB], 2003. Cochran-Smith and Lytle draw on public documents to argue that NCLB conveys a narrow and reductionist image of teachers and teaching. They ?nd that the policy image of teachers in NCLB places all responsibility for improving student learning on the shoulders of teachers, while framing the act of teaching as one of transmission rather than coconstruction of knowledge and emphasizing subject matter knowledge at the expense of pedagogical knowledge and skills.

    This study shares Cochran-Smith and Lytle’s (2006) focus on policy images of teachers and teaching and the social constructions embedded in policy designs. However, in the years since their work, the education policy landscape has become increasingly fragmented and characterized by a wide range of actors and organizations who are active in education policy (DeBray-Pelot & McGuinn, 2009). We sought to capture this diversity of actors by empirically identifying in?uential actors and organizations before analyzing the policy images constructed by those actors. While Cochran-Smith and Lytle focused on the policy image offered by NCLB and present an alternative image, we sought to describe the set of images found among in?uential actors and consider the implications of those images for a wide ranges of policies such as teacher evaluation, teacher education, and teacher licensure requirements.

    Research on social construction in policy arenas demonstrates that social constructions have important ties to the nature of the policies advocated (Ingram & Schneider, 2005). Our goal in this paper is to use the idea of policy images to aid efforts to tease out the subtle distinctions in how people talk and write about speci?c constructions of teachers and the links between those distinctions and large-scale policy designs. For example, policy images might shape the design of teacher evaluation policies, particularly as these policy images incorporate ideas of teacher motivation and the role of teachers in raising student achievement. As noted by Stone (2002), those involved in policy debates, “?ght with ideas as well as about them” (p. 36, emphasis in original).

    This paper begins with an overview of literature on social construction of policy, policy images, and the use of causal narratives in policy design. Building on this framing, we draw on interview and documentary data from 23 individuals and organizations determined by a survey of experts to be “in?uential” in national educational policy debates. Our analysis identi?es three archetypal policy images of distinct constructions of teachers: “Profession of Teaching Struggling Against Dif?cult Circumstances,” “Individual Great Teachers can Overcome All Obstacles,” and “Dysfunctional Structures of Teaching Trump Teacher Quality.” We also discuss the complexity within these images, demonstrating how the policy landscape incorporates greater variation than that suggested by rhetoric that conveys dichotomous perspectives on educational reform. We conclude by examining how the substance of our ?ndings can inform discussions of teachers in policy contexts and how the explicit analysis of policy images and social constructions can contribute to the analysis of policy more broadly.

    文献来源:

    Katrina E. Bulkley ,Jessica Gottlieb. Policy Images of Teachers: How In?uential Actors Construct Images of Teachers [J]. Teachers College Record, 2017.


    推荐人:

        王秀红,东北师范大学化学学院教授、博士生导师。

    推荐语:

        模型和建模是近年来国际科学教育研究的热点之一。教师能否具备模型和建模的思想,使用模型和建模的方法,进而引导学生参与到建?;疃?,其关键在于教师对于模型和建模本质的理解。本文从科学哲学和科学教育领域,对有关模型和建模的知识进行了综述。本文可以为科学教师学习模型和建模知识提供比较全面的认识,为有关模型和建模的教学实践和研究奠定基础。

    推荐文章:

    What Teachers of Science Need to Know about Models: An overview

    Phil Seok Oh   Sung Jin Oh

    ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the nature of models and their uses in the science classroom based on a theoretical review of literature. The ideas that science philosophers and science education researchers have in common about models and modelling are  scrutinized according to five subtopics: meanings of a model, purposes of modelling, multiplicity of scientific models,change in scientific models and uses of models in the science classroom. First, a model can be defined as a representation of a target and serves as a ‘bridge’ connecting a theory and a phenomenon. Second, a model plays the roles of describing, explaining and predicting natural phenomena and communicating scientific ideas to others. Third, multiple models can be  developed in science because scientists may have different ideas about what a target looks like and  how it works and because there are a variety of semiotic resources available for constructing  models. Fourth, scientific models are tested both empirically and conceptually and change along with the process of developing scientific knowledge. Fifth, in the science classroom, not only teachers but also students can take advantage of models as they are engaged in diverse modelling  activities. The overview presented in this article can be used to educate science teachers and  encourage them to utilize scientific models appropriately in their classrooms.

    文献来源:

    Phil Seok Oh ,Sung Jin Oh. What Teachers of Science Need to Know about Models: An overview[J]. International Journal of Science Education, 2011, 33(8)1109-1130.


    推荐人:

    刘丽艳,东北师范大学外国语学院教授、博士生导师。

    推荐语:

    这是一篇2019年发表于《教学与教师教育》(Teaching and Teacher Education)的探讨美国教师从教准备度与从业表现的论文。美国《教学与教师教育》杂志是阐述教师教育发展前沿的权威杂志, 主要涉及国际视野和背景下的教师、教学和教师教育的研究,在教师教育与发展领域起到标杆作用, SSCI 数据库教育类期刊中具有很高的影响因子。教师从教准备度一直是师范学校培养教师的重要关注点,教师从教准备度和从业表现是近几年教师教育的热点话题。本论文探讨了教师从教准备度和教师从业表现的关系,并指出教师从业表现在很大程度上受到所任教的学?;肪车挠跋?。通过阅读与思考,能让我们更清楚地理解教师从教准备的重要意义,为职前教师提供更多的去不同的学校观察,交流与实习的机会的重要性;也能让我们结合自己所教专业,思考如何更好地帮助职前教师提高从教准备度,为更好地从业表现做好充分的准备。

    推荐文章:

    Teacher Preparation and Performance in High-needs Urban Schools: What Matters to Teachers

    Peshe Kuriloff   Will Jordan   Danielle Sutherland   Annette Ponnck

    Temple University

    HIGHLIGHTS:

    l Teacher quality is key to student achievement and school success.

    l Teachers feel unprepared for the rigors of teaching in low-performing urban schools.

    l Teacher performance in urban schools does not vary by preparation program.

    l Teacher performance is highly influenced by school settings.

    l Mentoring and community matter most to teachers.

    文献来源:

    Kuriloff P., Will J., Danielle S.,& Annette P. Teacher Preparation and Performance in High-needs Urban Schools: What Matters to Teachers[J]. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2019,83 : 54-63.


    推荐人:

    韩继伟,东北师范大学教师教育研究院教授,博士生导师。东北师范大学教师教育研究院学科教学中心主任。

    推荐语:

    这是一个使用二手数据做的研究。通过分析德国大型教师教育研究项目TEDS-M中教师知识的数据和其后续研究TEDS-FU中教师诊断的数据,研究教师识别有创造性和高数学能力学生的素养及其与教师知识之间的关系。由于是二手数据研究,因此这个论文从研究设计与研究方法上都是使用已有研究项目的,甚至在两个变量之间关系的探讨上也只使用了很初级的描述性统计。但这个研究的话题非常好,和我们教师教育研究院三大学科方向,特别是郑长龙老师主持的理科课题组的研究课题——“高水平理科教师的关键能力有关。这个研究关注的是教师培养有创造性和高数学能力学生的素养。在展开这个话题的讨论中,不仅提到了很多关于数学英才的研究,也有我们所关注的培养数学英才所需教师的特质和教学特点的研究。如Nadjafikhan et al. (2012)Teaching mathematically talented students: a cross-cultural study about their teachers’ views. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 2012, 87, 409-438.)就提到对数学结构的洞察力、对创造性的开放态度等。这篇论文中的线索可能对于我们丰富现阶段的研究框架和在后续阶段如何用恰当的概念与国际接轨有所启发。

    推荐文章:

    Professional competences of teachers for fostering creativity and supporting high?achieving students

    Jessica Hoth   Gabriele Kaiser   Andreas Busse   Martina D?hrmann  

    Johannes K?nig  Sigrid Bl?meke

    INTRODUCTION

    In mathematics classrooms, teachers are faced with a multitude of challenges. One of these challenges is to meet the heterogeneous learning requirements of their students. Mathematics teachers, therefore, do not only need to see and react to learning difficulties and misconceptions by students, but they also need to be aware of students’ strengths, their creativity and abilities. Teachers need to understand students’ diverse learning approaches; they must be able to identify quality and creativity in students’ multiple solutions and to draw conclusions about students’ mathematical ability. Shayshon et al. (2014) claim that “the teachers’ role in nurturing mathematically talented students should be one of the main focal points in teacher preparation and professional development programs” (p. 410).

    The present paper focuses on this aspect and examines whether future teachers have developed the mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) during teacher education that is necessary to foster creativity and to support mathematically able students. Furthermore, the paper reports the results of research that examined whether these teachers possess situation-specific skills in identifying and fostering creativity and in supporting high-achieving students within mathematics teaching, after about 3 years of teaching practice. The international Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) assessed mathematics teachers’ knowledge at the end of teacher education. Its longitudinal German follow-up study (TEDS-FU) focused on the competence development of these teachers during their first years of work experience. The TEDS-FU study included situation-specific skills of teachers using a videobased test that requires that teachers react to classroom situations. Based on a secondary analysis of these data under the perspective described above, the aim of the present paper is to analyze whether German primary (mathematics) teachers possess the necessary professional competences to foster creativity and act adequately when teaching high-achieving students.

    文献来源:

    Hoth. Professional competences of teachers for fostering creativity and supporting high-achieving students[J]. ZDM Mathematics Education,2017,49: 107-120.


     

    推荐人:

    何劲鹏,东北师范大学体育学院教授,博士生导师,东北师范大学体育学院副院长。

    推荐语:    

    文章哲学蕴意悠长、厚重的历史感、贴切的现实感,身体现象描述具体,身体观比较透彻,借鉴启示价值较大。,

    “肌肉文化”能让人类看清自己在追逐文明中所暴露的缺陷;“肌肉文化”能让我们找到对抗人类“新兴疾病”和提高免疫力的思想武器工具。阅读此文课题提高体育学科的文化理解力,树立现代身体“救赎”的运动观,强烈呼唤运动的身体观。指出了强化身体素质,培养运动能力,是当前我国体育教育的当务之急。

    论文从身体锻炼到身体崇拜发展,实时描述了“肌肉男”韦德兄弟、“肌肉州长”施瓦辛格、“肌肉总统”奥巴马,从“肌肉车”悍马,“肌肉电影”第一滴血的兰博,“动感”的迪士尼《猫和老鼠》、到“肌肉海滩”肌肉女,体育给近代西方社会发展注入的活力和动力,注入了生活激情与想象。反观了近年来的我国身体文化,奶油“娘炮”的造型,学生身体的“软、硬、笨、晕”,阳刚之气、血性男儿不见踪影,令人担忧。

    推荐文章:

    美国肌肉文化的时代价值

    ——基于中西方传统身体文化的历时发展

    程宙明

    华东师范大学"青少年健康评价与运动干预"教育部重点研究室

    摘要:从传统的哲学观念和身体表现形式等视角追溯中西方身体文化的历史形态,并在此基础上探究发现:中西方不论在身心二元对立还是在近现代文明外衣的遮蔽下都忽视了承载精神和欲望的中介——"身体"。不过,西方已经通过"肌肉文化"唤醒了其民众的身体意识,而国人仍然深陷"中庸思想""追逐时尚"的泥潭之中。在单靠医药难以帮助人类抵抗各种与日俱增的新型疾病的时代,身体训练或许是人类抵抗病菌和机能退化的有效方式,体育或许是伸展身体和引导人类树立积极身体意识的理想舞台和路径。

    文献来源:

    程宙明.美国肌肉文化的时代价值——基于中西方传统身体文化的历时发展[J].体育科学,2012,32(08):73-80.






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